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Alzheimer's

* Alzheimer's patients saw a reduction in body stiffness and arthritis as well as alleviation of the illness's symptoms of restlessness and wandering following reflexology work.

"Old age converts to the New Age," Daily Mail, September 14, 1995

 

Amenorrhea

* Results of study: 95% of women who experienced amenorrhea found foot reflexology to be effective in alleviating symptoms.

Xiu-hua, Xu, "Analysis of 50 Cases of Amenorrhea Treated by Foot Reflex Therapy," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 36

Asthma

Forty five patients in the out-patient clinic, aged 5 months to 7 years (mean age = 3.8 years), with 25 boys and 20 girls. The range of the course of the bronchial asthma disease was 3 to 63 months. Daily 40 - 50 minute reflexology sessions were administered. The length of the therapeutic course ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. When the therapeutic course was complete, the clinical symptoms of all 45 patients disappeared, the rate of clinical cure being 100%. It is pointed out that in such young children, if they receive drugs, toxic reactions will occur as their visceral states are not fully developed; and, that generally infants do not like injection and forceful administration of drugs, but, do accept foot reflexology. A CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF FOOT REFLEXO MASSAGE FOR THE TREAMENT OF 45 CASES WITH INFANTILE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA By Duanmu Hui-xian, Health Centre for Women and Children, Haimen, Jiangsu Province.

Eighteen persons who suffered from asthma and bronchitis had received extensive medical treatment without real improvements were treated with reflexology. Two patients left the study; the remaining sixteen patients received ten reflexology sessions each. At the end of treatment 3 patients (18.75%) reported a complete cure, they no longer required spray treatments; 9 patients (56.25%) felt considerable improvement and could reduce their spray treatments from 8 - 10 x day to 1 - 2 x day; 2 patients (12.5%) felt better; 1 patient (6.25%) felt a little better, and, 1 patient (6.25%) felt no improvement.
REFLEXOLOGY, ASTHMA AND BRONCHITIS Unpublished 1988, report available from FDZ Research Committee.

This paper reports on 57 children, aged 5 months to 7.2 years, with infantile asthma treated successfully with foot reflexology. Fifty-five (96.5%) were evaluated as cured with no recurrence, and two (3.5%): one 4 - 5 years, one 6 - 7 years were improved but had recurrence. Concerns regarding medication treatment included the toxic effect on the young children's incompletely developed organs, plus, the children's resistance to taking medication by injection or orally. In comparison foot infants and young children readily accept reflexology. A CLINICAL INVESTIGATION ON 57 CASES WITH INFANTILE ASTHMA TREATED BY FOOT REFLEXOLOGY By Duanmu Huixian, Health Center For Women & Children, Haimen, Jiangsu Province.

Birthing

Of 593 women who gave birth at Gentofte County Hospital (Great Britain) in 1988, 103 chose reflexology as an alternative to both pain killing drugs and to labor stimulating and inducing drugs. Of sixty-eight women who chose reflexology with no analgesic drugs, sixty one(89.71%) stated that reflexology had helped reduce pain., six (8.82%) felt no effect, and, one had increased pain in spite of reflexology treatment. Four of the sixty-one women who were helped by reflexology also required pain medication. Of forty-nine women who chose reflexology to stimulate labor, twenty-four gave birth without additional drug treatment. Fourteen women who were candidates for surgical delivery, received reflexology treatment between 30 and 60 minutes of birth. Eleven (78.57%) were then able to discharge the placenta. The other three had it surgically removed. All participants, except one, found the reflexology treatments extremely pleasant.

"Easier Births Using Reflexology." By Gabriella Bering Liisberg, "Tidsskrift for Jordemodre", No. 3, 1989.

 

Thirty-seven of 64 pregnant women, who were offered free reflexology, completed the set course of ten treatments. The effects of reflexology on labor outcomes were perceived as outstanding. Some had labor times of only 2 hours, some 3 hours. The 20 - 25 year olds had an average time of First stage labor of 5 or 6 hours. The 26 - 30 year olds seemed to have the longest labors. In total, the average first stage was 5 hours, second stage 16 minutes, and third stage 7 minutes. This is compared to textbook figures of 16 to 24 hours' first stage, and, 1 to 2 hour's second stage.

"The Effects of Reflexology on Labour Outcome," Dr. Gowri Motha and Dr. Jane McGrath, Forest Gate, London, England

 

FDZ- Reflexology: Birth, (12 pages) http://www.fdz.dk/english/research/reports.htm.

Siu-lan, Li and Cai-xia, Shu, "Galactogogue Effect of Foot Reflexology in 217 Parturient Women," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), p. 14

Sorrig, Kirsten, "Easier Births Using Reflexology, "Danish Reflexologists Association, Research Committee Report, Feb., 1995 (Originally published in the Danish daily newspaper "Berlingske Tidende," July 15, 1988)

Xi Guang, Xi, "A Case Report: Using Foot Reflexotherapy to Cure Sequelae of Asphyxia with Buttocks Position Birth," 1994 China Reflexology Symposium Report, p. 33 (Tianjin)

 

Cancer

* Results of study: Reflexology modifies the distressing symptoms of pain and nausea in patients hospitalized with cancer. "87 patients participated in the study and each received a 10-minute reflexology foot massage (5 minutes per foot). The results revealed that the treatments produced a significant and immediate effect on the patients' perceptions of pain, nausea and relaxation when measured with a visual analog scale. The use of reflexology foot massage as a complementary method is recommended as a relatively simpler nursing intervention for patients experiencing nausea or pain related to the cancer experience. The results were so positive that the researchers recommend that further research using larger numbers of patients in controlled clinical trials into its effectiveness of reflexology in alleviating pain, nausea and anxiety in the management of these symptoms by the family at home is warranted."

Grealish, L. Lomasney, A., Whiteman, B., "Foot Massage: A nursing intervention to modify the distressing symptoms of pain and nausea in patients hospitalized with cancer," Cancer Nurse 2000, June;23(3):237-43 (On-line review: "Reflexology Used for Cancer Patients," Internet Health Library, October 11, 2000)

 

* Results of study: 100% of the reflexology group benefited from an improvement in quality of life: appearance, appetite, breathing, communication (doctors), communication (family), communication (nurses), concentration, constipation, diarrhoea, fear of future, isolation, micturition, mobility, mood, nausea, pain, sleep and tiredness. Within the reflexology group, the participants reported an improvement in all components of the quality of life scale compared to 67. 5 in the placebo group. Nevertheless, this study would suggest that the provision of reflexology for palliative patients within the general setting could be beneficial. Not only did the patients in this study enjoy the intervention, they were also 'relaxed,' 'comforted' and achieved relief from some of their symptoms.

Hodgson, H. "Does reflexology impact on cancer patients' quality of life?," Nursing Standard, 14, 31, pp. 33-38

 

* Results of study: Foot reflexology alleviated anxiety and pain for twenty-three patients with breast and lung cancer. Researchers noted a significant decrease in anxiety for patients diagnosed with breast or lung cancer and a significant decrease in pain for patients with breast cancer. "This has important implications for nursing practice as both professionals and lay people can be taught reflexology. Reflexology is a simple technique for human touch which can be performed anywhere, requires no special equipment, is non-invasive and does not interfere with patients' privacy."

Stephenson, N. L., Weinrich, S. P. and Tavakoli, A. S., "The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer," OncolNursForum 2000, Jan.-Feb.;27(1):67-72

 

"In Switzerland, many new nurses are taught this approach. When applied skillfully, a reflexology massage is pleasantly relaxing and able to diminish painful sensations in the body. Given the number of uncontrollable variables involved in the decrease of pain and the establishment of a feeling of relaxation, our small study has no scientific value. It was only intended to motivate nurses to look for ways to integrate aspects of alternative care in the management of terminal patients. "Our purpose for using reflexology with these patients was to decrease their pain but we soon realized the beneficial effect of reflexology on the morale of patients and families. Something was being done for them. Patients expressed feelings of being less abandoned and the families expressed satisfaction at seeing that something painless existed that could aid their relative. In three situations we taught a relative how to use reflexology and the benefit seemed to have been as important for the relative as for the patient. "Patients' comments about reflexology seem to show that it could be one way for them to feel this support and to have a helping presence near them in their last days."(Dobbs, Barbara Zeller, "Alternative health approaches," Nursing Mirror (England), Vol. 160, No. 9, Feb. 27, 1985)(Can Nurse 82: 39-41 (1986)\Reflexology\Dobbs-Zeller B\MeSH Terms:\ * Aged\ * English Abstract\ * Female\ * Foot\ * Human\ * Male\ * Middle Age\ * Neoplasms/physiopathology*\ * Pain, Intractable/therapy*\ * Reflexotherapy/methods*\ * Terminal Care\ PMID: 3634658, MUID: 86189470)

 

Cardio-vascular system See Heart

* Results of study: "The reflexology and foot massage control groups experienced a significantly greater reduction in baroreceptor (of the heart) reflex sensitivity," "the mechanism that maintains blood pressure and homeostasis by changes in autonomic outflow."

Frankel, B. S. M., "The effect of reflexology on baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, blood pressure and sinus arrhythmia," Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Churchill, London, 1997, Vol. 5, pp. 80-84

 

Cerebral palsy

* Results of study: Children with cerebral palsy who received reflexology work show an improved growth rate over those who did not.

Rong-zhi, Wang, "An Approach to Treatment of Cerebral Palsy of Children by Foot Massage," A Clinical Analysis of 132 Cases," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 26

 

Cervical spondylosis

* Results of study: Individuals with cervical spondylosis were found to experience a higher clinical cure rate when treated with reflexology than those treated with traction.

Shouqing, Gui; Changlong, Zhang and Desheng, Luo, "A Controlled Clinical Observation on Foot Reflexology Treatment for Cervical Spondylopathy,"1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 99-103

 

Chest pain

Margaret Berker, a qualified reflexologist and member of the British Reflexology Association conducted an interesting small-scale study at the Cardiac Unit of the Queen Elizabeth hospital , Birmingham, UK, into the effects of reflexology on a group of four patients suffering from chest pain.

The patients were obtained from a consultant; all had all experienced pain for periods ranging between 18 months and 13 years and, cardiac catheterizations revealed that none of the patients had any identifiable disease of the cardiac arteries. Furthermore, none of the patients had had reflexology treatment prior to the study, nor were they encouraged to believe that the treatment would 'cure' their condition.

Reflexology treatments were given weekly over a period of eight weeks and the patients were asked to keep a diary to record their chest pain before and after treatments which specified (a) the number of episodes, (b) the intensity of the pain and (c) the duration of the pain.

Analysis of the data revealed that all of the patients recorded positive results; three of the four experienced a complete relief from their original symptoms after nine months and the remaining patient reported a reduction in pain.

 

Constipation

* Results of study: Not only do constipated individuals evacuate their bowels more quickly when receiving reflexology work but individuals with normal bowel function do also.

Yuru, Yang; Lingyun, Chao; Guangling, Meng; Scuwe, Cao; Jia-Mo, Hao and Suhui, Zhang, "Exploring the Application of Foot Reflexology to the Preventions and Treatment of Functional Constipation," 1994 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, p. 62

 

Coronary heart disease

* Results of study: Symptoms of coronary heart disease (chest distress and angina) disappear and a drop in blood pressure of 25/5 is achieved in those receiving foot reflexology work, results better than those achieved with medication.

Zhongzheng, Li and Yuchun, Liu, "Clinical observation on Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with Foot Reflexotherapy," 1998 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 38 - 41

 

Diabetes

Results of study: Diabetic individuals provided with foot reflexology and hypoglycemic agents show a significant change in measures of the disease as opposed to those who received hypoglycemic agents alone where no significant change was observed. Wang, X. M., "Type II diabetes mellitus with foot reflexotherapy," Chuang Koh Chuang Hsi I Chief Ho Teas Chi, Beijing, Vol. 13, Sept. 1993, pp 536-538

Results of study: For individuals diagnosed as diabetic, hypoglycemic agents work better for those receiving reflexology work and the individuals show "marked improvement" in measures of the disease. Zhi-qin, Duan et. al., "Foot Reflexology Therapy Applied On Patients with NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetic mellitus)," 1993 China Reflexology Symposium, p. 24

 

King, Ma, "Clinical Observation on Influence upon Arterial Blood Flow in the Lower Limbs of 20 Cases with Type II Diabetes Mellitus Treated by Foot Reflexology," 1998 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 97 - 99

 

Dyspepsia

* Results of study: Foot reflexology work was found to be more effective than drugs in treating dyspepsia.

Zhi-wen, Gong and Wei-song, Xin, "Foot Reflexology in the Treatment of Functional Dyspepsia: A Clinical Analysis of 132 Cases," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 37

Emotional Needs (See also Mental Health)

A recent British study found reflexology to provide beneficial effects on "women experiencing a need for emotional support." Fifteen women received 30-minute reflexology sessions for eight weeks. The findings included: physical improvements, emotional improvements, self-esteem and confidence, motivation, touch, increase in relaxation levels, being heard and taken seriously, concentration improvements. (Trousdale, Peta, "Reflexology meets emotional needs," International Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, November, 1996, p. 9)

 

Enuresis

*The purpose of the study was to clarify whether reflexology is a relevant treatment for enuresis nocturna, and to test a research design applicable to controlled experiments with reflexology. An unblinded method was used comparing a treatment group (1) receiving reflexology to a non-treatment group (2) keeping the same record of symptoms. At the start of the study, the volumes of night urine in the two groups were comparable. By the end of the study, there was no significant decrease in the volume of night urine in either of the groups. Two children in the treatment group and one in the non-treatment group became dry during the night in the course of the study. In conclusion, reflexology given as 14 treatment sessions over a period of four months did not result in a significant fall in enuresis nocturna in children aged seven to eleven years old. It must be concluded that the treatment result can not be distinguished from the conditions in the non-treatment group even though the average night diuresis in group one showed a slightly decreasing tendency while morning diuresis increased, in contrast to group two which exhibited a slight increase in night diuresis. As the total diuresis remained constant, this could be interpreted as an increased urinary bladder capacity, but in both cases the changes were far from significant.

Comment in: Ugeskr Laeger 1999 Apr 12;161(15):2224 Sietam KS, Eriksen L Forenede Danske Zoneterapeuter, Kolding.

 

Free radicals

* Results of study: Foot reflexology work was found to decrease the free radicals present in test subjects.

Shouqing, Gui; Changlong, Zhang; Jixai, Dong and Desheng, Luoof, "A Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Foot Reflexo-Massage &emdash; Its Effect on Free Radicals," 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 128-135

 

Headache

Results of study: 19% of headache sufferers ceased taking medication following reflexology work.

 

According to a large nationwide research study undertaken in Denmark, reflexology treatment has a beneficial effect on patients suffering from migraine and tension headaches. The study was conducted at the Department of Social Pharmacy, The Royal Danish School of Pharmacy in co-operation with five reflexology associations. 220 patients participated with treatment being given by 78 fully trained reflexologist across the country.

 

Headaches remain the most common health problem amongst the adult population and it has been estimated that they are the reason for the loss of three mil-lion working days every year. Reflexology is renowned for its ability to help relax and calm patients and for this reason it was considered an interesting therapy to study for the treatment of tension headaches and migraine.

 

Of all the patients who took part in the study, 90 percent said that they had taken prescribed medication for their headaches within the month prior to the commencement of the study and, of them, 36 percent had experienced side effects from the medicines. 81 percent of the prescribed medicine in the acetvlsalicyclic acid and paracetamol group was taken at least twice a week and 72% of the stronger migraine medicines were taken at least once a fortnight which indicates that the majority of the patients were suffering from moderate to severe symptoms. 34 percent had taken medications for ailments other than headaches.

 

Three months after a completed series of reflexology treatments, 81 percent of patients confirmed that reflexology had either cured (16%) or helped (65%) their symptoms. 19 percent of the patients re-ported that they had been able to completely dispense with the medications they had been taking before the study.

 

The reflexologist also found that there was a strong link between headaches and the gall bladder, stomach, bladder, and endocrine hormone meridians. At the end of the study the patients who benefited from the treatment showed less stress on the reflex points for the ovaries, small intestine, bladder, stomach, liver and kidneys than they had experienced on their first treatment. The likelihood of successful cure was found to be greatest for: a) those patients whom the reflexologist found no stress on the reflex zones of the uterus or gall bladder, and b) younger patients who had suffered from headaches for a short period of time.

 

Brendstrup, Eva and Launsų, Laila, "Headache and Reflexological Treatment," The Council Concerning Alternative Treatment, The National Board of Health, Denmark, 1997

 

Heart See Cardio-Vascular System

Ten recipients of reflexology work and ten recipients of foot massage work were compared to a control group of four individuals in a single blind study. Frankel found that "The reflexology and foot massage groups showed significantly greater reductions in baroreceptor reflex sensitivity compared to the control group. This study found no significant difference in blood pressure after intervention. The frequency of sinus arrhythmia after reflexology and foot massage increased by 43.9% and 34.1% respectively."

Frankel, B. S. M., "The effect of reflexology on baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, blood pressure and sinus arrhythmia," Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Churchill, London, 1997, Vol. 5, pp. 80-84

Hospice / Palliative care

See Cancer: Hodgson, H. "Does reflexology impact on cancer patients' quality of life?," Nursing Standard, 14, 31, pp. 33-38

See Cancer: Dobbs, Barbara Zeller, "Alternative health approaches," Nursing Mirror (England), Vol. 160, No. 9, Feb. 27, 1985

A recent study found that reflexology as applied to palliative care cancer patients did not warrant the hiring of a reflexologist to provide services. "While patients greatly enjoyed the treatments, there was no discernible defiance in outcome between those receiving reflexology and those receiving standard foot massage. "Both treatments were administered weekly for six weeks by any one of three therapist, who had agreed standardised methods." (Cornbleet, Michael A.m "Research in complementary medicine is essential (Letter to the Editor), British Medical Journal, March 24, 2001)

 

Hyperlipimia

* Results of study: Individuals who receive foot reflexology show an improvement in symptoms of hyperlipimia (cholesterol and monoglyceride). Shou-qing, Gui; Xian-qing, Xiao; Yuna-zhong, Li; and Wan-yan, Fu, "Impact of the Massotherapy Applied to Foot Reflexes on Blood Fat of Human Body," 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, p. 21

 

Infantile Pneumonia

* Results of study: Infants who receive both medication and reflexology work recovered from infantile pneumonia more quickly than those who receive medication alone. Liang-cai, Pei, "Observation of 58 Infantile Pneumonia by Combined Method of Medication with Foot Massage, A Clinical Analysis of 132 Cases," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 34

 

Kidney function

* Results of study: Kidney function improves after the application of reflexology work. "Using colour (sic) Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determine in a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised (sic) study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology, the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity was measured in cm/s, and the resistive index a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p</=0.001) during and an increase (p=0.001) after foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo groups significantly differed concerning alterations of the restive index, both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p=0.002) and those during versus after reflexology (p=0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum (treatment) group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in the renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associate foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy."

(PMID: 14060981, UI: 99392031)Sudmeier, I., Bodner, G., Egger, I., Mur, E., Ulmer, H. and Herold, M. (Universitatsklinik fur Innere Medizin, Inssbruk, Austria) "Anderung der nierendurchblutung durch organassoziierte reflexzontherapie am fuss gemussen mit farbkodierter doppler-sonograhpie," Forsch Komplementarmed 1999, Jum;6(3):129-34 (PMID: 14060981, UI: 99392031)

 

Kidney and Ureter Stones

* Results of study: Lithotrity (external crushing of kidney and ureter stones) patients experienced less pain, began excretion of stones earlier, and completed excretion earlier than those who did not receive reflexology work.

Xiaojian, Ying, "Foot Reflexology as an Accessory Treatment after External Lithotrity a Clinical Observation of 46 Cases," 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 58 - 59

 

Kidney

A few years ago, researchers at Glostrop hospital, Copenhagen, demonstrated that reflexology can help relieve the acute pain suffered by patients with kidney stones. 30 patients participated in the study and were divided equally into three groups: one group received reflexology treatment, one group received placebo treatment and the remaining groups were used as controls.

If no pain relief was experienced within 5 minutes, the treatment would end for analgesic medications, but those who experienced a benefit within 5 minutes, treatment was continued for a further 10 minutes. The results showed that 9 out of the 10 patients in the reflexology group experienced complete pain relief after the treatment which lasted for over an hour and in 5 of the patients pain was relieved for 4 hours.

Medical doctors Niels Baekgaard and Vibe Hansen, who conducted the study, concluded that "Reflexology treatment of acute ureterolithiasis has a pain relieving effect" and when compared to Baralgin (a commonly administered analgesic), the findings revealed that reflexology actually works faster at alleviating pain although the effects last for a shorter duration.

FDZ Magazine 'Zoneterapeuten' No 6, 1993

 

Leukopenia

* Results of study: Foot reflexology work was found to be more effective than medication in effecting leukopenia, low white blood cell count. (A pathological level of white blood cell count) Ya-zhen, Xu, "Treatment of Leukopenia with Reflexotherapy," 1998 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 32-37

 

Mental Health

A reflexologist and a counsellor worked with 74 people (49 receiving reflexology and 25 receiving counselling) between May 1996 and August 1997. Findings: (1) A reported increase in relaxation levels and decrease in anxiety levels (except for 2 reflexology participants). (2) Release of tension through being able to talk led to greater relaxation, alleviating headaches and improving sleep. (3) Participants developed and increased awareness of tension and increased ability to change that state. (4) Improvement in emotional status, Fear, worry and despair were considered to have changed into more positive and fulfilling emotions. Greater progress when reflexology and counselling were offered together.

 

Peta Trousdell and Andrea Uphoff-Chmielnik, "Making connections: user perception of the effects of reflexology and counseling: an evaluation of a complementary health care project at Worthing Mind," September, 1997 (Copy of the report available from MIND Worthing, 8-10 Durrington Lane, Worthing, W. Sussex BN13 2QB, United Kingdom for 5 pounds)

 

Migraine headache

"Foot reflexology is defined as massage of zones on the feet which correspond to different parts of the body. A medline-search yielded no literature in the field of foot reflexology. Indications for and results of foot reflexology have been extrapolated from case-descriptions and two pilot studies with small samples. One study (Lafuente et al.) found foot reflexology to be as helpful to patients with headaches as medication (flunarizine), yet foot reflexology was fraught with less side-effects than medication. In a second study (Eichelberger et al.) foot reflexology was used postoperatively on gynecological patients. The intervention group showed a lesser need for medication to enhance bladder tonus than did the control group. The literature describes foot reflexology as enhancing urination, bowel movements and relaxation." Foot reflex zone massage (Kesselring A, Institut fur Pflegeforschung, Bern.)

Heydenreich A., Institution: Abteilung Neurologie, Wilhelm-Pieck-Universitat, Rostock."Treatment of migraine with controlled reflex methods and stimulation therapy," Schweiz Med Wochenschr Suppl, 62: 88-93 (1994) Authors:. [Review] [0 refs] [German] Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung. 82(24):1247-9, 1988.

MeSH Terms: English Abstract; Female; Flunarizine/therapeutic use; Foot*; Genital Diseases, Female/surgery; Headache/therapy; Headache/drug therapy; Human; Massage/methods*; Postoperative Complications/therapy; Reflexotherapy/methods*; Urination Disorders/therapy

 

Multiple sclerosis

Following a number of reports by reflexologists of MS patients benefiting from reflexology treatment, a small scale study was initiated backed by the Grampian branch of the Charity Action and Research for Multiple Sclerosis (GARMS) and the Scottish Institute of Reflexology.

 

GARMS provides regular hyperbaric oxygen therapy and physiotherapy for people with MS, and volunteers were asked to participate in reflexology study. Fourteen were assigned to a treatment group to receive a one hour reflexology treatment every week, and 13 patients were selected to act as a control group (one member dropped out leaving twelve who completed the study in the control group)

 

At the commencement of the study, participants were asked to asses nineteen of the most common symptoms as either minor, major or not applicable. The assessment was repeated after 6 weeks and 12 weeks when the participants also noted whether their symptoms had improved, worsened or not changed. The control were assessed using the same form at the same intervals as the treatment group, and both the treatment and control groups were asked at the time of the assessment whether on not their medication or diet had changed to assess possible external factors.

 

After 6 weeks, a significant number of people in the treatment group showed an improvement in their symptoms, and most of these improvements were maintained. During the second 6 week period, however, many of the participants had lost some of the improvements they had gained in the first 6 weeks; but after 18 weeks, the results revealed that those patients in the treatment group experienced some improvements in 45% of the symptoms compared to a much lower rate of 13% in the control group.

 

The results indicate that reflexology does offer some therapeutic benefit to MS patients especially in the first 6 weeks of treatment, although the treatment sessions need to be regular, and the benefits seem to diminish after twelve weeks.

Joyce M, Richardson R. Reflexology helps multiple sclerosis. JACM July 1997 10-12 (www.internethealthlibrary(

 

Pain of kidney and ureter stones

* Results of study: Reflexology work reduces the pain of those with kidney and ureter stones.

Eriksen, Leila, "Clinical Trials of Acute Uretic Colic and Reflexology," Reflexology: Research and Effect Evaluation in Denmark, Danish Reflexologists Association, Kolding, Denmark, 1993, p. 10

 

Mental Health (See also Emotional Needs)

"It is clear by the end of the research period that a significant number of participants had experienced many positive effects from the reflexology treatments." The findings of a study of "those in need of emotional support" were reported by Mind Affiliated Local Association Worthing in a publication titled "Making Connections, User Perception of the Effects of Reflexology & Counselling: an evaluation of a complementary health care project at Worthing Mind." Mind Worthing is an affiliate of national charity Mind.

The study was conducted at a day centre or a drop-in centre. "The people included in the study were all in need of emotional support." They ranged in age from 18 to 65. Forty-nine individuals participated in the reflexology project and twenty-five in the counselling project between May 1996 and August 1997. "Most of the reflexology sample received reflexology once a week for eight weeks, and each treatment lasted thirty minutes. Qualitative data collection included "Confidential profiles" (individual responses to questions) and "Focus group questions" (responses gathered in groups of four to eight individuals).

Findings from participant responses included: Improvement in physical aspects, significant improvement in emotional state, improvement in ability to concentrate, increase in motivation for a significant number of participants, significant increase in confidence and self-esteem levels, improvement in communication and ability to articulate ideas more effectively and readily, "importance of being touched during treatment in a safe non-intrusive / abusive manner," and reduction of medication by several.

Reports of benefits by the centre's staffs were noted: "Both services (reflexology and counselling), it was reported, have in addition (to positive feedback from members) helped to alleviate pressure on staff and avert crises because some members becoming more relaxed and at ease as a result of having had reflexology and/or counselling."

Assessment of cost-effectiveness included questions related to the cost of not providing reflexology and/or counselling services. At issue were expenses related to the cost of typical interventions such as psychotropic medications or consultation with a GP or Psychiatrist. Adverse outcomes for individual were noted to potentially include "psychiatric breakdown, attempted suicide, physical / sexual abuse of children, and inappropriate health care seeking behaviors."

(Trousdale, Peta and Uphoff-Chmielnik, Andrea, "Making Connections, User Perception of the Effects of Reflexology & Counselling: an evaluation of a complementary health care project at Worthing Mind," September 1997

 

Milk secretion in new mothers

* Results of study: Women who have recently given birth lactate earlier and more satisfactorily when given foot reflexology work. Siu-lan, Li, "Galactagogue Effect of Foot Reflexology in 217 Parturient Women," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996 p. 14

 

Neurodermatitis

* Results of study: Foot reflexology helped individuals with neurodermatitis avoid the side effects of drug therapy such as fatigue, sleeplessness and gastrointestinal symptoms. Zhi-ming, Liu and Song, Fang, "Treatment of Neurodermatitis by Foot Reflex Area Massage (with a test group of 15 and a control group of 15)," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 16

Nervous exhaustion

Recent research from China suggest that reflexology may be particularly helpful for patients suffering from nervous exhaustion.Twenty patients with a history of neurasthenia (nervous exhaustion) which had lasted between 1 &endash; 8 years were given a course of reflexology at the department of physiotherapy, 52884 Military Hospital.

The patients' chief symptoms were dizziness, insomnia, memory loss, indigestion and headaches. All had previously received long term medical treatment none of which had helped them.The reflexology treatments focused on the areas of the feet relating to the adrenal gland, kidneys, bladder, sinus, brain and heart. Those patients who suffered from associated digestive problems were also treated to the areas of the feet relating to spleen, stomach, duodenum and celiac, while those patients who suffered from headaches had the areas of the feet relating to the cerebellum and trigeminal nerves treated.

The reflexology treatments were given daily over a period of seven days and the results were quite remarkable:40% experienced complete 'cure', further 35% had greatly improved, and a further 15% had mildly improved. Only 10% showed no change at all to the treatment.

Duan Shuang-Feng. Foot reflexology in neurosism: Clinical Observation of 20 cases. Presented at the China reflexology symposium in Beijing (July 1993). Reflexology research reports (Association of Reflexologtists) 2nd edition

Post surgical pain

* Results of study: Post surgical patients who receive foot massage and medication report "significantly less" agony than those on painkillers alone.

"Foot Rubs Easing Pain," Third Age. com, December 4, 1998

 

Post surgical recovery

* Results of study: Researchers demonstrated that reflexology enhances urination, stimulates bowel movements and so aids recovery. Patients who received reflexology also showed a much less need for medication than patients in the control group.

Kesselring, A. Fussrelszonemassage. Schweiz med Won\chenschr suppi (Switzerland) 1994, 62, pp. 88-93

 

Pre-menstrual syndrome

* Results of study: Reflexology improves the symptoms of 46% of those suffering from PMS. Oleson, Terry and Flocco, William, "Randomized Controlled Study of Premenstrual Symptoms Treated with Ear, Hand, and Foot Reflexology," Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1993;82(6): 906-11

 

(Hyperplasia of the) Prostate Xiao-li, Chen, "Hyperplasia of Prostate Gland Treated by Foot Reflex Area Health Promoting Method (with a group of 90 study participants)," 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, October 1996, pp. 32 - 33

 

Psoriasis Xi-guang, Xu and De-zhao, Liu, "Treatment of Psoriasis with Foot Reflexology," 1994 China Reflexology Symposium Report, p. 91 (Tianjin, China)

 

(Male) Sexual dysfunction

* Results of study: Reflexology was found to be 87.5% effective for men experiencing impotence and 100% effective for other male sexual dysfunctions.

Jianhua, Sun, "The Comparison of Curative Effects Between Foot Reflexology and Chinese Traditional Medicine in Treating 37 Cases with Male's Sexual Dysfunction," 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, p. 75

 

Sinusitis

"Reflexology massage" was found to be as effective as nasal irrigation for alleviation of chronic sinusitis in a University of Wisconsin School of Medicine study. Dr. Andrew Weil's Self Healing reports that "After two weeks of daily treatment, more than 70 percent of those who practiced either form of nasal douching reported improved symptoms. But surprisingly, the group that practiced reflexology massage - where pressure is applied to the feet or hands but may produce changes elsewhere in the body - appeared to fare equally well. The unexpected results for this technique may prompt further research." ("The Saline Solution?, Self Healing, January 2002, page 2)"

"Reflexology massage" was utilized as a control in the testing of two nasal irrigation study groups, nasal irrigation with a bulb syringe and nasal irrigation with a nasal irrigation pot. One hundred fifty individuals were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. "Groups one and two performed daily hypertonic saline irrigation for two weeks with one method (bulb syringe or nasal irrigation pot) and then switched to the other method for the following two weeks. Irrigation devices were collected and cultured after two weeks of use. Group three (the control) performed reflexology massage daily for two weeks. Data was collected prospectively including pre-treatment Medical Outcomes Study Short Form, pre and post-treatment Rhinosinusitis."

"Overall, 36 percent of subjects reported decreased use of sinus medication (decongestants, antihistamines, pain relievers, and nasal sprays) during the study with no measurable difference between the three groups. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that daily nasal irrigation with hypertonic saline offers patients an inexpensive treatment protocol that improves chronic sinusitis symptoms. During the study, a number of patients decreased or eliminated medication.The choice of preferred irrigation protocol was likely linked to the randomization among patient subjects. It is unclear whether the improvement found in patients in the reflexology massage group reflects a therapeutic, placebo, or combination of effects. All the findings highlight the complex interactions of managing chronic sinusitis symptoms."

(Diane G. Heatley MD, Glen E. Leverson PhD, Kari E. McConnell RN, and Tony L. Kille (the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI) "Nasal Irrigation for the Alleviation of Sinonasal Symptoms," presented Monday, September 25, 2000, at the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation Annual Meeting/Oto Expo, being held September 24-27, 2000, at the Washington, DC Convention Center) (http://www.askdrbob.com/archives/reference/sinus.htm)

 

Toothache

* Results of study: Reflexology reduced the pain of 66% toothache patients and eliminated the symptoms of 26%. Xue-xiang, Wang, "Relieve (150 Cases of) Toothache with Foot Reflexotherapy," 1994 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, October 1994, p. 132 - 135

 

Urinary tract stones

* Results of study: Individuals who have received lithotrity (external mechanical impact on kidney or ureter stones) expel the fragmented stones more quickly following foot reflexology work.

Yue-jin, Zhang; Jing-Fang, Chung and Bao-rong, Ju, "Observation of the Effect of Foot Reflex Area Massage on 34 Cases of Calouli of Urinary Tract," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), 1996, China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 46

 

Urinary tract infection

* Results of study: Individuals with kidney infection who receive foot reflexology and medication recovered more quickly than those who used medicine alone. Yu-lian, Zao, "Clinical Observation on Treatment of Infection of Urinary Tract by Foot Massage," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), 1996, China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 17

 

Uroschesis (retention of urine)

* Results of study: Reflexology work was found to be more effective and safer than the standard treatment of catheterization in patients with uroschesis, retention of urine following surgery. Cailian, Lin, "Clinical Observation on Treatment of 40 Cases of Uroschesis with Reflexology," 1998 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 52 - 53

 

Employee sick days

* Reflexology work saved a Danish employer US$3,300 a month in fewer sick days for employees in addition to improving the work environment. Eriksen, Leila, Reflexology: Research and Effect Evaluation in Denmark, Danish Reflexologists Association, Denmark, August 1995, pp. 15 - 16

 

81. Topic: pain

Med J Aust 1: 1051-1054 (1970)Management of intractable pain by neural therapy. Gerzner LF

MeSH Terms: * Adult * Aged * Caffeine/therapeutic use* * Cicatrix * Dyspepsia/drug therapy * Female * Human * Intermittent Claudication/drug therapy * Male * Middle Age * Migraine/drug therapy * Osteoarthritis/drug therapy * Pain/therapy* * Periarthritis/drug therapy * Procaine/therapeutic use* * Reflexotherapy* * Spondylitis/drug therapyPMID: 5430478, MUID: 70239352*Krankenpfl Soins Infirm 86: 61-63 (1993)

Study on foot reflex zone massage. Alternative to tablets\Eichelberger G\MeSH Terms:

* Analgesia\ * Bladder/physiology\ * Foot\ * Human\ * Reflexotherapy*

PMID: 8510453, MUID: 93287641\Hippokrates 36: 465-471 (1965)\Neural medicine - a survey with an application to joint diseases\Huneke W

MeSH Terms:\ * Human\ * Joint Diseases/therapy*\ * Reflexotherapy*\PMID: 5833162, MUID: 66014672

 

Controlled Studies

1. Alzheimer's "Old age converts to the New Age," Daily Mail, September 14, 1995

2. Amenorrhea Xiu-hua, Xu, "Analysis of 50 Cases of Amenorrhea Treated by Foot Reflex Therapy," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 36

3. Cancer "Foot Massage: A nursing intervention to modify the distressing symptoms of pain and nausea in patients hospitalized with cancer," Grealish, L. Lomasney, A., Whiteman, B., Cancer Nurse 2000, June;23(3):237-43 (On-line review: "Reflexology Used for Cancer Patients," Internet Health Library, October 11, 2000)

Grealish, L. Lomasney, A., Whiteman, B., "Foot Massage: A nursing intervention to modify the distressing symptoms of pain and nausea in patients hospitalized with cancer," Cancer Nurse 2000, June;23(3):237-43 (On-line review: "Reflexology Used for Cancer Patients," Internet Health Library, October 11, 2000)

Hodgson, H. "Does reflexology impact on cancer patients' quality of life?," Nursing Standard, 14, 31, pp. 33-38

Stephenson, N. L., Weinrich, S. P. and Tavakoli, A. S., "The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer," OncolNursForum 2000, Jan.-Feb.;27(1):67-72

4. Cardio-vascular system Frankel, B. S. M., "The effect of reflexology on baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, blood pressure and sinus arrhythmia," Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Churchill, London, 1997, Vol. 5, pp. 80-84

5. Cerebral palsy Rong-zhi, Wang, "An Approach to Treatment of Cerebral Palsy of Children by Foot Massage," A Clinical Analysis of 132 Cases," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 26

6. Cervical spondylosis Shouqing, Gui; Changlong, Zhang and Desheng, Luo, "A Controlled Clinical Observation on Foot Reflexology Treatment for Cervical Spondylopathy,"1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 99-103

7. Children, mentally retarded, Feng, Gu; Zhao, Lingyun; Yuru, Yang; Jiamo, Hao; Shuwen, Cao and Xiulan, Zhang, "Comparative Study of Abnormal Signs in the Feet of Feebleminded Children, 1998China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 9 - 13

8. Lingyun, Yuru, Zhao; Yang Yuru, Feng gu; Jiamo, Hao; Shuwen, Cao and Xiulan, Zhang, "Observation on Improvement of Feeble-Minded Children's Social Abilities by Foot Reflexo-Therapy," 1998 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 24 - 28

9. Constipation Yuru, Yang; Lingyun, Chao; Guangling, Meng; Scuwe, Cao; Jia-Mo, Hao and Suhui, Zhang, "Exploring the Application of Foot Reflexology to the Preventions and Treatment of Functional Constipation," 1994 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, p. 62

10. Coronary heart disease Zhongzheng, Li and Yuchun, Liu, "Clinical observation on Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with Foot Reflexotherapy, 1998 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 38 - 41

11. Diabetes Wang, X. M., "Type II diabetes mellitus with foot reflexotherapy," Chuang Koh Chuang Hsi I Chief Ho Teas Chi, Beijing, Vol. 13, Sept. 1993, pp 536-538

12. Zhi-qin, Duan et. al., "Foot Reflexology Therapy Applied On Patients with NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetic mellitus)," 1993 China Reflexology Symposium, p. 24

13. King, Ma, "Clinical Observation on Influence upon Arterial Blood Flow in the Lower Limbs of 20 Cases with Type II Diabetes Mellitus Treated by Foot Reflexology," 1998China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 97 - 99

14. Dyspepsia Zhi-wen, Gong and Wei-song, Xin, "Foot Reflexology in the Treatment of Functional Dyspepsia: A Clinical Analysis of 132 Cases," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 37

15. Free radicals Shouqing, Gui; Changlong, Zhang; Jixai, Dong and Desheng, Luoof, "A Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Foot Reflexo-Massage &emdash; Its Effect on Free Radicals," 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 128-135

16. Headaches Brendstrup, Eva and Launsų, Laila, "Headache and Reflexological Treatment," The Council Concerning Alternative Treatment, The National Board of Health, Denmark, 1997

17. Hyperlipimia Shou-qing, Gui; Xian-qing, Xiao; Yuna-zhong, Li; and Wan-yan, Fu, "Impact of the Massotherapy Applied to Foot Reflexes on Blood Fat of Human Body," 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, p. 21

18. Infantile Pneumonia Liang-cai, Pei, "Observation of 58 Infantile Pneumonia by Combined Method of Medication with Foot Massage," A Clinical Analysis of 132 Cases," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 34

19. Kidney function Sudmeier, I., Bodner, G., Egger, I., Mur, E., Ulmer, H. and Herold, M. (Universitatsklinik fur Innere Medizin, Inssbruk, Austria) "Anderung der nierendurchblutung durch organassoziierte reflexzontherapie am fuss gemussen mit farbkodierter doppler-sonograhpie," Forsch Komplementarmed 1999, Jum;6(3):129-34 (PMID: 14060981, UI: 99392031)

20. Kidney and Ureter Stones Xiaojian, Ying, "Foot Reflexology as an Accessory Treatment after External Lithotrity a Clinical Observation of 46 Cases, 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, p. 58 - 59

21. Leukopenia (A pathological level of white blood cell count) Ya-zhen, Xu, "Treatment of Leukopenia with Reflexotherapy," 1998 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 32-37

22. Pain of kidney and ureter stones Eriksen, Leila, "Clinical Trials of Acute Uretic Colic and Reflexology," Reflexology: Research and Effect Evaluation in Denmark, Danish Reflexologists Association, Kolding, Denmark, 1993, p. 10

23. Milk secretion in new mothers Siu-lan, Li, "Galactagogue Effect of Foot Reflexology in 217 Parturient Women," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996 p. 14

24. Neurodermatitis Zhi-ming, Liu and Song, Fang, "Treatment of Neurodermatitis by Foot Reflex Area Massage (with a test group of 15 and a control group of 15)," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 16

25. Post surgical pain "Foot Rubs Easing Pain," Third Age. com, December 4, 1998

26. Pre-menstrual syndrome Oleson, Terry and Flocco, William, "Randomized Controlled Study of Premenstrual Symptoms Treated with Ear, Hand, and Foot Reflexology," Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1993;82(6): 906-11

27. (Hyperplasia of the) Prostate Xiao-li, Chen, "Hyperplasia of Prostate Gland Treated by Foot Reflex Area Health Promoting Method (with a group of 90 study participants)," 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, October 1996, pp. 32 - 33

28. (Male) Sexual dysfunction Jianhua, Sun, "The Comparison of Curative Effects Between Foot Reflexology and Chinese Traditional Medicine in Treating 37 Cases with Male's Sexual Dysfunction," "Foot Reflexology as an Accessory Treatment after External Lithotrity a Clinical Observation of 46 Cases, 1996 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, p. 75

29. Sinusitis Diane G. Heatley MD, Glen E. Leverson PhD, Kari E. McConnell RN, and Tony L. Kille (the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI) "Nasal Irrigation for the Alleviation of Sinonasal Symptoms," presented Monday, September 25, 2000, at the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation Annual Meeting/Oto Expo, being held September 24-27, 2000, at the Washington, DC Convention Center) (http://www.askdrbob.com/archives/reference/sinus.htm

30. Toothache Xue-xiang, Wang, "Relieve (150 Cases of) Toothache with Foot Reflexotherapy," 1994 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, October 1994, p. 132 - 135

31. Urinary tract stones Yue-jin, Zhang; Jing-Fang, Chung and Bao-rong, Ju, "Observation of the Effect of Foot Reflex Area Massage on 34 Cases of Calouli of Urinary Tract," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), 1996, China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 46

32. Urinary tract infection Yu-lian, Zao, "Clinical Observation on Treatment of Infection of Urinary Tract by Foot Massage," (19)96 Beijing International Reflexology Conference (Report), 1996, China Preventive Medical Association and the Chinese Society of Reflexology, Beijing, 1996, p. 17

33. Uroschesis (retention of urine) Cailian, Lin, "Clinical Observation on Treatment of 40 Cases of Uroschesis with Reflexology," 1998 China Reflexology Symposium Report, China Reflexology Association, Beijing, pp. 52 - 53

34. Employee sick days Eriksen, Leila, Reflexology: Research and Effect Evaluation in Denmark, Danish Reflexologists Association, Denmark, August 1995, pp. 15 - 16

 

Other

35. Teruo, Nakamura, "Using Technical Measuring Machine," RWO-SHR Health '90 Worldwide Conference Tokyo, Best Care, Tokyo, pp. 45 - 54

36. Cho, Z. H., Chung, S. C., Jones, J. P., Park, J. B., Park, H. J., Lee, H. J., Wong, E. K., and Min, B. I., "New findings of the correlation between acupoints and corresponding brain cortices using functional MRI," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Vol. 95, pp. 2670-2673, March 1998, Physiology

37. Oz, Mehmet C., Whitworth, Gerard C., and Liu, Eric C., "Complementary Medicine in the Surgical Wards (at Columbia&endash;Presbyterian Hospital in New York City)," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 279, pp. 710-711, March 4, 1998